Unit - I Environment 1.1 Definitions, need of environmental studies. 1.2 Segments of environment Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere, Biosphere. 1.3 Environmental Issues - Green house effects, Climate change, Global warming, Acid rain Ozone layer depletion, Nuclear accidents. 1.4 Concept of 4R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recover). 1.5 Public awarness about environment. Unit - II Energy Resources 2.1 Natural Resources-Forest Resources, Water Resources, Energy Resources, Land resources, Mineral resources. 2.2 Renewable, Non-renewable and Cyclic Resources. 2.3 Causes and effects of depletion of resources. 2.4 Energy forms (Conventional and nonconventional). 2.5 Present global energy use and future demands. 2.6 Energy conservation. 2.7 Over use of natural resources and its impacts on environment. Unit - III Ecosystem and Biodiversity 3.1 Ecosystem - Definition , Aspects of ecosystem, Division of ecosystem, General characteristics of ecosystem, Functions of ecosystem. 3.2 Biodiversity- Definitions, Levels, Value and loss of biodiversity. 3.3. Biodiversity assessment initiatives in India. 3.4 Threats and Hotspots of biodiversity. 3.5 Conservations of biodiversity- objects, various laws. Unit-IV Environmental Pollution 4.1 Definition of pollution, types Natural and Artificial (Man-made). 4.2 Soil / Land Pollution - Causes and effects on environment and lives, presentive measures. 4.3 Water pollution - Sources of water (surface and sub surface), source of water pollution effect on environemnt and lives, preventive measures, BIS water quality standards, flow diagram of water treatment plant, Water conservation. 4.4 Waste water - Generation (domestic and industrial), Impacts, flow diagram of sewage treatment plant, CPCB norms of sewage discharge. 4.5 Air pollution - Causes, effects prevention, Ambient air quality standards. 4.6 Noise pollution - Sources, effects, prevention, noise levels at various zones of the city. 4.7 Municipal Solid Waste, Bio-medical waste and E-waste - Sources, generation, characteristics, effects, and method to manage. Unit-V Social Issues and Environmental Education 5.1 Article (48-A) and (51-A (g)) of Indian Constitution regarding environment, Environmental, protection and prevention acts, CPCB and MPCB norms and responsibilities, The role ofNGOs. 5.2 Concept of sustainable development, EIA and environmental morality. 5.3 Management Measures - Rain Water harvesting, Ground water recharge, Green Belt Development, Use of Renewable energy, water shed management, interlinking of rivers. 5.4 Role of information technology in environment and human health.