# Fluid Mechanics for JNTU-H 18 Course (II - I - CIVIL - CE305PC) (Decode)

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UNIT - I Properties of Fluid Distinction between a fluid and a solid; Density, Specific weight, Specific gravity, Kinematic and dynamic viscosity; variation of viscosity with temperature, Newton law of viscosity; vapour pressure, boiling point, cavitation; surface tension, capillarity, Bulk modulus of elasticity, compressibility. Fluid Statics Fluid Pressure : Pressure at a point, Pascals law, pressure variation with temperature, density and altitude. Piezometer, U-Tube Manometer, Single Column Manometer, U-Tube Differential Manometer, Micromanometers. pressure gauges. Hydrostatic pressure and force: horizontal, vertical and inclined surfaces. Buoyancy and stability of floating bodies. (Chapter - 1) UNIT - II Fluid Kinematics Classification of fluid flow: steady and unsteady flow; uniform and non-uniform flow; laminar and turbulent flow; rotational and irrotational flow; compressible and incompressible flow; ideal and real fluid flow; one, two- and three-dimensional flows; Stream line, path line, streak line and stream tube; stream function, velocity potential function. One, two- and three-dimensional continuity equations in Cartesian coordinates. Fluid Dynamics Surface and Body forces -Euler’s and Bernoulli’s equation; Energy correction factor; Momentum equation. Vortex flow – Free and Forced. Bernolli’s equation to real fluid flows. (Chapter - 2) UNIT - III Flow Measurement in Pipes Practical applications of Bernoulli’s equation: venturimeter, orifice meter and pitot tube; Momentum principle; Forces exerted by fluid flow on pipe bend. Flow Over Notches & Weirs Flow through rectangular; triangular and trapezoidal notches and weirs; End contractions; Velocity of approach. Broad crested weir. (Chapter - 3) UNIT - IV Flow through Pipes Reynolds experiment, Reynolds number, Loss of head through pipes, Darcy-Wiesbatch equation, minor losses, total energy line, hydraulic grade line, Pipes in series, equivalent pipes, pipes in parallel, siphon, branching of pipes, three reservoir problem, power transmission through pipes. Analysis of pipe networks : Hardy Cross method, water hammer in pipes and control measures. (Chapter - 4) UNIT - V Laminar & Turbulent Flow Laminar flow through: circular pipes, annulus and parallel plates. Boundary Layer Concepts Boundary Layer Analysis-Assumption and concept of boundary layer theory. Boundary-layer thickness, displacement, momentum & energy thickness, laminar and Turbulent boundary layers on a flat plate; Laminar sub-layer, smooth and rough boundaries. Local and average friction coefficients. Separation and Control. Definition of Drag and Lift and types drag, magnus effect. (Chapter - 5)

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