The book provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamental concepts of computer organization and architecture. Its focus on real-world examples encourages students to understand how to apply essential organization and architecture concepts in the computing world. The book teaches you both the hardware and software aspects of the computer. It explains computer components and their functions, interconnection structures, bus structures, computer arithmetic, processor organization, memory organization, I/O functions, I/O structures, processing unit organization, addressing modes, instructions, instruction pipelining, instruction-level parallelism, and superscalar processors. The case studies included in the book help readers to relate the learned computer fundamentals with the real-world processors.