Unit - I Fundamentals of thermodynamics (08 Marks) la. Deterιηine the properties of the given substance using therιηodynamic tables. 1b. Explain the phenomena when thermodynamic principles is applied to the given condition of gas. 1 c. Explain the phenomena when first law of thermodynamics in the given thermodynamic system. 1 d. Determine the rate ofwork done and thermal energy transfer during thermodynamic process in the given type of open system. 1.1 Basic Concepts - Concept ofpure substance, types of systeιηs, properties of systeιηs, Extensive and Intensive properties, flow and non - flow processes, specific volume, temperature, density, pressure. Processes and cycles. 1 .2 Energy - Work, Heat Transfer and Energy Thermodynamic definition of work and heat, difference between heat and work, energy - Potential Energy, kinetic Energy, internal Energy, Flow Work, concepts of enthalpy and physical concept of entropy. 1.3 Laws ofThermodynamics - Zeroth law, first law of thermodynamics, second law of thermodynamics, Kelvin Planks, Clausius stateιηents and their equivalence. Reversible and irreversible processes, factors making process irreversible, reversible carnot cycle for heat engine and refi-igerator. 1.4 Application of Laws of Thermodynamics Steady flow energy equation and its application to boilers, engine, nozzle, turbine, compressor and condenser. Application of second law of thermodynamics to heat engine, heat pump and refrigerator. Unit - II Ideal gases and ideal gas processes (14 Marks) 2a. Evaluate the work done and therιηal energy transfer according to Boyle's law for the given situation. 2b. Evaluate the work done and thermal energy transfer according to Charle's law for the given situation. 2c. Calculate the mass of a gas and its final condition parameters after undergoing Polytropic process for the given situation. 2d. Determine characteristic gas constant of commonly used gases for the given data. 2e. Calculate different energy changes during ideal gas processes for the given situation. 2.1 Avogadro's law, calculate molar volume. Derivation of characteristic gas equation using Boyle's and Charle's law, characteristic gas constant and universal gas constant. Ideal gas processes - Isobaric, Isochoric, Isothermal, Tsentropic, Polytropic, Throttling and their representation on p-V and T-S diagrams. Determination of work, heat, internal energy, enthalpy change and entropy change. Unit- ΠΙ Steam and steam boilers (14 Marks) 3a. Deterιηine dryness fraction for the given steam sample. 3b. Represent different vapor processes on suitable co-ordinates in the given situation. 3c. Calculate the efficiency of the given type of boiler for the given conditions. 3d. Calculate the rates ofthermal energy transfer in the given type of boiler and superheater for the given conditions. 3.1 Steam fundaιηentals - Applications of steam, generation of steam at constant pressure with representation on various charts such as pV, Τ - S, Η - S. Properties of steaιη and use of steaιη table, dryness fraction, degree of superheat, sensible and latent heat boiler effιciency, Mollier chart. 3.2 Vapour processes - Constant pressure, constant volume, constant enthalpy, constant entropy process (numerical using steam table to determine dryness fraction and enthalpy), Rankine cycle. 3.3 Steam Boilers - Classification, Construction and working ofCochran, Babcock and Wilcox, La-ιηont and Loeffler boiler, packaged boilers. Boiler draught, Indian Boiler Regulation (IBR) (to be covered in practical periods). 3.4 Boiler ιηountings and accessories. 3.5 Boiler instrumentation. Methods of energy conservation in boilers. Unit - IV Steam turbines (16 Marks) 4a. Select the nozzles for the given situation. 4b. Determine thermal efficiency for the specified type of steam turbine for given conditions. 4c. Interpret the given types of steam cycles to estimate efficiencies ίη a steam power plant. 4d. Compare the performance for the given steam turbine stages. 4.1 Steam nozzle - Continuity equation, types of nozzles, concept ofMach number, critical pressure and chocked flow condition, application of steam nozzles. 4.2 Steam turbine - Classifιcation of turbines, Construction and working of impulse and reaction turbine. 4.3 Compounding of turbines and its types, Regenerative feed heating, bleeding of steam, governing and its types, losses in steam turbines. Unit- V Steam condensers (10 Marks) 5a. Identify the elements and processes of the given types of steam condensers. 5b. Identify the elements and processes of the given cooling towers. 5c. Calculate condenser effιciency and vacuum effιciency for the given parameters. 5d. Evaluate the therιηal performance for the given data of the steam condenser. 5e. Interpret the thermal design of the given type of cooling tower. 5f. Select condensers for the given situation with justifιcation. 5g. Select cooling tower for the given situation with justification. 5.1 Steam condensers - Dalton's law ofpartial pressure, function and classification of condensers, construction and working of surface condensers and jet condensers. 5.2 Condenser performance- Sources ofair leakage and its effect, concept of condenser effιciency, vacuum effιciency (Simple numerical). Cooling Towers - Construction and working of forced, natural and induced draught cooling tower. Unit - VI Heat transfer and heat exchangers (08 Marks) 6a. Calculate heat transfer by conduction through composite s\abs and pipes for the given data. 6b. Use Stefan Boltzman law of radiation in the given situation. 6c. Solve thermal engineering problems with the given data using principles of energy mechanisms. 6d. Explain construction and working ofa given type of heat exchangers with sketches. 6e. Select heat exchangers for the given situation with justification. 6.1 Modes of heat transfer - Conduction, convection and radiation. 6.2 Conduction - Fourier's law, thermal conductivity, conduction through cylinder, thermal resistance, composite walls, list of conducting and insulating materials. 6.3 Convection- Newton's law of cooling, natural and forced convection. 6.4 Radiation - Thermal Radiation, absorptivity, transιηissivity, reflectivity, emissivity, black and gray bodies, Stefan - Boltzιηan law. 6.5 Heat Exchangers - Classification, construction and working of shel\ and tube, Shell and coil, pipe in pipe type and plate type heat exchanger, automotive heat exchanger and its applications.