Unit - I Database System Concept 1.1 Concept of Data, database, DBMS, advantages of DBMS, over file processing system, Application of database. 1.2 Three level architecture for database system. 1.3 Data abstraction : Different levels of Data abstraction, Instance and schema, Data independence - Logical and Physical independence. 1.4 Overall Structure of DBMS. 1.5 Data Modeling : Record based logical model - Relational, Network, Hierarchical. 1.6 Data Modeling Using the E - R Model : Entity Relationship Model, Strong Entity set, Weak Entity set, Types of Attributes, E - R Diagrams. Unit - II Relational Data Model 2.1 Fundamentals of RDBMS - Record, fields, data types, tables and database. 2.2 Concept of RDBMS, E.F. Codd's Rule for RDBMS, Key concepts - Candidate key, Primary key, Foreign key. 2.3 Normalization : Normalization Concepts, Need of Normalization, Types of Normalization - 1NF, 2NF, 3NF. 2.4 Introduction to Structured Query Language, Data Types in SQL, components of SQL-DDL, DML, DCL, DQL. 2.5 DDL commands : CREATE, ALTER, DROP, TRUNCATE, DESC, RENAME. 2.6 Data Integrity Constraint : Types of Data Integrity Constraint : I/O constraint - Primary key, Foreign key, Unique key constraint, Business Rule Constraint - Null, Not Null and Check constraint. 2.7 DML commands : INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE. 2.8 DCL Commands : COMMIT, SAVEPOINT,, ROLLBACK, GRANT, and REVOKE. 2.9 DQL Commands : SELECT. 2.10 SQL Operators : Arithmetic Operators, Comparison Operators, Logical Operators, Set Operators, Range Searching operators - Between, Pattern matching operators - Like Unit - III Interactive SQL and Advance SQL : SQL Performance Tuning 3.1 In-built Functions : String, Arithmetic 3.2 Date and time, Aggregate functions. 3.3 Queries using Group by, having, and Order by clause, Joins - Inner and Outer Join, Sub queries. 3.4 Views : Concept of View, The Create View Command, Updating Views, Views and Joins, views and Sub queries, Dropping Views. 3.5 Sequences : Creating Sequences, Altering Sequences, Dropping Sequences. 3.6 Indexes : Index Types, Creating of an Index; Simple Unique, and 3.7 Composite Index, Dropping Indexes 3.8 Synonyms : Creating Synonyms, Dropping Synonyms. Unit - IV PL/SQL Programming 4.1 Introduction to PL/SQL, Advantages of PL/SQL, The PL/SQL Block Structure, PL/SQL execution environment, PL/SQL data Types, Variables, Constants 4.2 Control Structure : Conditional Control, Iterative Control, Sequential Control. 4.3 Exception handling : Predefined Exception, User Defined Exception. 4.4 Cursors : Implicit and Explicit Cursors, Declaring, Opening and Closing a Cursor, Fetching a Record from Cursor, Cursor for loops, Parameterized Cursors. 4.5 Procedures : Advantages, Creating, Executing and Deleting a Stored Procedure. 4.6 Functions : Advantages, Creating, Executing and Deleting a Function. 4.7 Database Triggers : Use of Database Triggers, How to apply database Triggers, Types of Triggers, Syntax for Creating Trigger, Deleting Trigger. Unit - V Database Security and Transaction Processing 5.1 Database security : Introduction to database security, Data security Requirements, Types of Database Users - Creating, altering and Deleting Users. 5.2 Protecting the data within database - Database Privileges : system privileges and object priveleges. Granting and Revoking Privileges : Grant and Revoke command. 5.3 Transaction : Concept, Properties and States of Transaction. 5.4 Database Backup - Types of failures, Causes of failures, Database Backup Introduction, Types of Database Backups - Physical and Logical. 5.5 Database Recovery - Recovery concept, Recovery Techniques - Rollforward, Rollback.