# Basic Surveying for MSBTE I Scheme (II - Civil - 22205)

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Unit - I Overview and Classification of Survey 1.1 Survey-purpose and use, principles of survey. l.2 Types of surveying-primary and secondary classification plane, geodetic, military, engineering cadastral, hydrographic, photogrammatry and areal surveying. 1.3 Scales : Engineer's scale, RF and diagonal scale. Unit - II Chain and Cross Staff Survey 2.1 Chain survey instruments : Metric Chain, Tapes, Arrow, Ranging rod, Open cross staff, optical square (No questions to be asked for exams) 2.2 Chain survey Station, Base line, Check line, Tie line, Offset, Tie station, obstacles in chaining; Types of offsets : Perpendicular and Oblique 2.3 Ranging : Direct and Indirect Ranging (No questions to be asked for exams) 2.4 Errors in length : Instrumental error, personal error, error due to natural cause, random error. 2.5 Principal of triangulation 2.6 Location Sketch of survey station and running measurements of building. 2.7 Conventional Signs Recording of measurements in a field book. 2.8 Area calculations (Numerical problems) Unit - III Chain and Compass Traverse Survey 3.1 Compass Traversing : open, closed. 3.2 Technical Terms : Geographic/True Magnetic and Arbitrary Meridians and Bearings, Meridian and Bearing, Whole Circle Bearing System (Azimuth) and Reduced (Quadrantal) Bearing System and examples on conversion of given bearing to another bearing (from one form to another), Fore Bearing and Back Bearing, Calculation of internal and external angles from bearings at a station. Dip of Magnetic needle, Magnetic Declination. (Numerical Problems) 3.3 Components of Prismatic Compass and their Functions (No sketch), Method of using Prismatic Compass-temporary adjustments and observing bearings. 3.4 Local attraction, Methods of correction of observed bearings-Correction at station and correction to included angles, 3.5 Methods of plotting a traverse and closing error, Graphical adjustment of closing error. Unit - IV Levelling 4.1 Terminologies : Level surfaces, level line, Horizontal and vertical surfaces, Datum, Bench Marks-GTS, Permanent, Arbitrary and Temporary, Reduced Level, Rise, Fall, Line of collimation, Station, Back sight, Fore sight, intermediate sight, Change point, Height of instruments. 4.2 Types of level : Dumpy, Tilting, Auto level, Digital level, Components of Dumpy Level and its fundamental axes. Temporary adjustments of Level. 4.3 Type of Leveling staffs : Self-reading staff and Target staff. 4.4 Reduction of level by line of collimation method and Rise/Fall method 4.5 Methods : To find the R.L by H.I. method (Numerical problems) 4.6 To find R.L. by Rise and Fall Methods with necessary checks (Numerical problems) 4.7 Leveling Types : Simple, Differential, Fly, Profile and Reciprocal leveling. 4.8 Computation of missing readings, Errors in Leveling. (Numerical problems) 4.9 Comparison of different levels Unit - V Contouring 5.1 Contour, contour interval, horizontal equivalent. 5.2 Contour maps : Characteristics and uses 5.3 Methods of Contouring : Direct and indirect 5.4 Methods of interpolation of contours : approximate, arithmetic and graphical 5.5 Toposheets : Study Unit - VI Measurement of Area and Volume 6.1 Digital planimeter : Components and uses. 6.2 Measurement of area using digital planimeter. (No problems to be asked for exams) 6.3 Measurement of volume of reservoir from contour map. (No problems to be asked for exams)

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