# Fluid Mechanics-II for SPPU 15 Course (TE - I - Civil- 301005) (OLD EDITION)

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Unit - I a) Fluid Flow around Submerged Objects : Practical problems involving fluid flow around submerged objects, Definitions and expressions for drag, lift, drag coefficient, lift coefficient, types of drag. Drag on sphere, cylinder, flat plate and Aerofoil, Karman’s vortex street, Effects of free surface and compressibility on drag, Development of lifts, Lift on cylinder and Aerofoil, Magnus effect, Polar diagram. b) Unsteady Flow : Types of unsteady flow; Flow through openings under varying head, Fluid compressibility, Celerity of elastic pressure wave through fluid medium; Water hammer phenomenon; Rise of pressure due to water hammer, Surge Tanks and their functions. (Chapters - 1, 2) Unit - II a) Introduction to Open Channel Flow : Classification of channels, and Channel flows. Basic governing equations of Channel flow viz. continuity equation, energy equation and momentum equation, One dimensional approach, Geometric elements of channel, Velocity distribution in open channel flow, Introduction to notches and weirs (Rectangular, Triangular, Trapezoidal). b) Depth-Energy Relationships in Open Channel Flow : Specific energy, Specific force, Specific energy diagram, Specific force diagram, Depth discharge Diagram, Critical depth, Conditions for occurrence of critical flow; Froude's number, flow classification based on it, Important terms pertaining to critical flow viz. section factor, concept of first hydraulic exponent; Critical flow computations; channel transitions. (Chapters - 3, 4) Unit - III a) Uniform Flow in Open Channels : Characteristics and establishment of uniform flow, uniform flow formulae : Chezy's and Manning's formulae; Factors affecting Manning's roughness coefficient; Important terms pertaining to uniform flow, viz. normal depth, conveyance, section factor, concept of second hydraulic exponent, Uniform flow computations. Most efficient channel sections (rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal and circular). b) Hydraulic Jump : Phenomenon of hydraulic jump; Location and examples of occurrence of hydraulic jump; Assumptions in the theory of hydraulic jump; Application of momentum equation to hydraulic jump in rectangular channel: Conjugate depths and relations between conjugate depths. Energy dissipation in hydraulic jump; Graphical method of determination of energy dissipation, Classification of hydraulic jump; Practical uses of hydraulic jump, venture flume, standing wave flume. (Chapters - 5, 6) Unit - IV a) Impact of Jet : Force and work done due to impact of jet on stationary and moving, flat and curved surfaces using linear momentum principle. b) Centrifugal Pumps : General classification of pumps, Centrifugal pumps- Classification, theory working, Selection of pumps, Centrifugal head, Work done by impeller, Heads and efficiencies, minimum starting speed, Cavitation in centrifugal pumps, multistage pumping, Introduction to submersible pumps and reciprocating pumps. (Chapters - 7, 8) Unit - V a) Hydropower Generation : Elements of hydropower plant; hydraulic turbines- Classification, heads and efficiencies, Design and governing of Pelton Wheel, Francis turbine-parts and working. Cavitation in hydraulic turbines - Site visit is recommended to learn this topic. b) Performance of Hydraulic Turbines : Prediction of performance in terms of unit quantities and specific quantities, Specific speed, Characteristic curves, Dimensional analysis as applied to hydraulic turbines, selection of turbines. (Chapter - 9) Unit - VI a) Gradually Varied Flow in Open Channels : Definition and types of non-uniform flow; Gradually Varied Flow (GVF) and Rapidly Varied Flow (RVF); Basic Assumptions of GVF; Differential equation of GVF - Alternative forms; Classification of channel bed slopes, Various GVF profiles, their general characteristics and examples of their occurrence; Control section b) Gradually Varied Flow Computations : Methods of GVF computations. Direct Step method, Graphical Integration method, Standard Step method, VenTe Chow method. (Chapter - 10)

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