# Basic Thermodynamics for BE VTU Course 18 OBE & CBCS (III- Mech.-18ME33)

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Module - 1 Fundamental Concepts & Definitions : Thermodynamic definition and scope, Microscopic and Macroscopic approaches. Some practical applications of engineering thermodynamic Systems, Characteristics of system boundary and control surface, examples. Thermodynamic properties; definition and units, intensive , extensive properties, specific properties, pressure, specific volume Thermodynamic state, state point, state diagram, path and process, quasi-static process, cyclic and non-cyclic; processes; Thermodynamic equilibrium; definition, mechanical equilibrium; diathermic wall, thermal equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Temperature; concepts, scales, international fixed points and measurement of temperature. Constant volume gas thermometer, constant pressure gas thermometer, mercury in glass thermometer. Work and Heat : Mechanics, definition of work and its limitations. Thermodynamic definition of work; examples, sign convention. Displacement work; as a part of a system boundary, as a whole of a system boundary, expressions for displacement work in various processes through p-v diagrams. Shaft work; Electrical work. Other types of work. Heat; definition, units and sign convention. Problems. (Chapters - 1, 2) Module - 2 First Law of Thermodynamics : Joules experiments, equivalence of heat and work. Statement of the First law of thermodynamics, extension of the First law to non - cyclic processes, energy, energy as a property, modes of energy, Extension of the First law to control volume; steady flow energy equation(SFEE), important applications. Second Law of Thermodynamics : Limitations of first law of thermodynamics Devices converting heat to work; (a) in a thermodynamic cycle, (b) in a mechanical cycle. Thermal reservoir, Direct heat engine; schematic representation and efficiency. Devices converting work to heat in a thermodynamic cycle; reversed heat engine, schematic representation, coefficients of performance. Kelvin - Planck statement of the Second law of Thermodynamics; PMM I and PMM II, Clausius statement of Second law of Thermodynamics, Equivalence of the two statements; Carnot cycle, Carnot principles. Problems. (Chapters - 3, 4) Module - 3 Reversibility : Definitions of a reversible process, reversible heat engine, importance and superiority of a reversible heat engine and irreversible processes; factors that make a process irreversible, reversible heat engines. Unresisted expansion, remarks on Carnot’s engine, internal and external reversibility, Definition of the thermodynamic temperature scale. Problems. Entropy : Clasius inequality, Statement- proof, Entropy- definition, a property, change of entropy, entropy as a quantitative test for irreversibility, principle of increase in entropy, entropy as a coordinate. (Chapters - 5, 6) Module - 4 Availability, Irreversibility and General Thermodynamic relations : Introduction, Availability (Energy), Unavailable energy, Relation between increase in unavailable energy and increase in entropy. Maximum work, maximum useful work for a system and control volume, irreversibility, second law efficiency. Pure Substances : P-T and P-V diagrams, triple point and critical points. Sub-cooled liquid, saturated liquid, mixture of saturated liquid and vapor, saturated vapor and superheated vapor states of pure substance with water as example. Enthalpy of change of phase (Latent heat). Dryness fraction (quality), T-S and H-S diagrams, representation of various processes on these diagrams. Steam tables and its use. Throttling calorimeter, separating and throttling calorimeter. (Chapters - 7, 8) Module - 5 Ideal gases : Ideal gas mixtures, Daltons law of partial pressures, Amagat’s law of additive volumes, evaluation of properties of perfect and ideal gases, Air- Water mixtures and related properties. Real gases – Introduction, Van-der Waal's constants in terms of critical properties, Beattie-Bridgeman equation, Law of corresponding states, compressibility factor; compressibility chart. Difference between Ideal and real gases. (Chapter - 9)

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