# Fluid Mechanics & Machinery for MSBTE I Scheme (IV - Mech. - 22445)

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Unit - I Properties of Fluid and Fluid Pressure 1.1 Properties of Fluids : Density, Specific gravity, Specific volume, Specific weight, Dynamic viscosity, Kinematic viscosity, Surface tension, Capillarity, Vapour, Pressure, Compressibility. l.2 Fluid Pressure and Pressure Measurement : Fluid pressure, Pressure head, Pressure intensity, Concepts of absolute vacuum, gauge pressure, atmospheric pressure, absolute pressure; Simple and differential manometers, Bourden pressure gauge; Total pressure, center of pressure on - regular surface immersed in given liquid in horizontal, vertical and inclined positions. Unit - II Fluid Flow 2.1 Types of fluid flows - Laminar, turbulent, steady, unsteady, uniform, non - uniform, rotational, irrotational, one, two and three dimensional flow. 2.2 Continuity equation, Bernoulli's theorem. 2.3 Venturimeter - Construction, principle of working, coefficient of discharge, Derivation for discharge through venturimeter. 2.4 Orifice meter - Construction, Principle of working, hydraulic coefficients, Derivation for discharge through Orifice meter 2.5 Pilot tube - Construction, Principle of working. Unit - III Flow through Pipes 3.1 Laws of fluid friction for Laminar and turbulent flow; Darcy's equation and Chezy's equation for frictional losses. 3.2 Minor losses in pipe fittings and valves; Hydraulic gradient line and total energy line. 3.3 Hydraulic power transmission through pipe. 3.4 Water hammer phenomenon in pipes, causes and remedial measures. Unit - IV Impact of Jet 4.1 Impact of jet on fixed vertical, moving vertical flat plates. 4.2 Impact on jet on curved vanes with special reference to turbines and pumps. Unit - V Hydraulic Turbines 5.1 Layout and features of hydroelectric power plant, surge tanks and its need. 5.2 Classification of hydraulic turbines and their applications. 5.3 Construction and working principle of Pelton wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbine. 5.4 Draft tubes - types and construction. Concept of cavitation in turbines. 5.5 Calculation of Work done, Power, efficiency of turbine. Unit - VI Pumps 6.1 Centrifugal Pumps : Construction, principle of working, priming methods and Cavitation; Types of castings and impellers; Static head Manometric head, Work done, Manometric efficiency, Overall efficiency, Numericals based on above parameters, NPSH, Performance Characteristics of Centrifugal pumps and its trouble shooting, Construction, working and applications of multistage pumps, Working principle and applications of submersible pumps and Jet pump. 6.2 Reciprocating Pump : Construction, working principle and applications of single and double acting reciprocating pumps; Slip, Negative slip, Cavitation and separation, Use of Air Vessels; Indicator diagram with effect of acceleration head and frictional head; Pump selection criteria - head, discharge.

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