Unit I Fundamentals of Thermodynamics Introduction, Review of basic definitions, Zeroth law of Thermodynamics, Macro and Microscopic Approach, State Postulate, State, Path, Process and Cycles, Point function and Path function, quasi static process, Equilibrium. Temperature : (Concepts, scales, international fixed points and measurement of temperature), Constant volume gas thermometer and constant pressure gas thermometer, mercury in glass thermometer. (Chapter - 1) First Law of Thermodynamics : Concept of heat and work, Sign convention and its conversion. First law of thermodynamics, Joules experiments, Equivalence of heat and work. Application of first law to flow and non-flow Processes and Cycles. Steady Flow Energy Equation (SFEE), Applications of SFEE to various devices such as Nozzle, Turbine, Compressors, Boilers etc. PMM-I kind. (Chapters - 2, 3) Unit II Ideal Gas and Second law of Thermodynamics Properties and Processes of Ideal Gas : Ideal Gas definition, Gas Laws : Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Avagadro’s Law, Equation of State, Ideal Gas constant and Universal Gas constant, Ideal gas Processes- on P-V and T-S diagrams, Constant Pressure, Constant Volume, Isothermal, Adiabatic, Polytropic, Throttling Processes (Open and Closed systems), Calculations of Heat transfer, Work done, Internal Energy, Change in Entropy, Enthalpy, Free Expansion. (Chapter - 4) Second Law of Thermodynamics : Limitations of first law of thermodynamics, Thermal reservoir, Heat Engine, Refrigerator and Heat pump : Schematic representation, Efficiency and Coefficient of Performance (COP), Kelvin-Planck & Clausius Statement of the Second law of Thermodynamics; PMM-II kind, Equivalence of the two statements; Clausius Inequality, Concept of Reversibility and Irreversibility, Carnot Theorem/Principles, Carnot Cycle. (Chapter - 5) Unit III Entropy and Availability Entropy : Entropy as a property, Clausius Inequality, Principle of increase of Entropy Principle, Entropy changes for an Open and Closed System, Change of Entropy for an ideal gas and Pure Substance, Concept of Entropy generation. Entropy - a measure of Disorder. Availability : Available and Unavailable Energy, Concept of Availability, Availability of heat source at constant temperature and variable temperature, Availability of non-flow and steady-flow Systems. (Chapters - 6, 7) Unit IV Properties of Pure substances & Thermodynamics of Vapour Cycle Properties of Pure substances : Formation of steam, Phase changes, Properties of steam, Use of Steam Tables, Study of P-v, T-s and h-s plots (Mollier Chart) for steam, Dryness fraction and its determination, Study of steam calorimeters (Barrel, Separating, Throttling and combined) Non-flow and Steady flow Vapour Processes, Change of Properties, Work and Heat transfer. Thermodynamics of Vapour Cycle : Rankine Cycle, Comparison of Carnot cycle and Rankine cycle, Introduction to Steam power Plant, Efficiency of Rankine Cycle, Relative Efficiency, Effect of Varying operating parameters like Superheat, Boiler and Condenser Pressure on performance of Rankine cycle, Modified Rankine Cycle. (Chapters - 8, 9) Unit V Fuels and Combustion Types of fuels, Proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel, Combustion theory, Combustion Equations, Theoretical and Excess air requirements, Equivalence ratio, Analysis of products of combustion, Calorific value - HCV & LCV. Bomb and Boys gas Calorimeters. Flue Gas Analysis using Orsat Apparatus, Exhaust Gas analyser, Enthalpy of formation, Adiabatic flame temperature. (Chapter - 10) Unit VI Steam Generators & Boiler Draught Steam Generators : Classification, Constructional details of low pressure boilers, Primary Features of high pressure (Power) boilers, Location, Construction and working principle of boiler, Boiler mountings and accessories, Instrumentations required for safe and efficient operation, Introduction to IBR Act, Boiler performance Calculations-Equivalent Evaporation, Boiler efficiency, Heat balance Sheet.